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What are Computer Generations?

What are Computer Generations?

The computer is one of the advanced devices that goes through various updates and developments rapidly, and in the current period, many exporters turn to devices characterized by speed and lowest price with larger storage units to perform various and more complex tasks.

  • The computer, in the beginning, was a machine that performed mathematical operations; And then matter evolved in several stages until the computer became a complex computing operation, and it can be used in many fields such as education and communication.
  • The first calculator was invented in 1835 AD by Babbage, which was known as the “analytical machine”.
  • The computer entered our lives in the year 1944 AD, through the agency of engineer Aiken, and it was the first modern computer to enter our lives, and it worked accurately through the agency of engineer Mark, as this device worked electrically, not electronically. and it had many features that distinguished it from data storage units at the time and the ability to print information with an electrical machine was the size of an entire room.
  • The computer has gone through a lot of development and progress to this day with the transition of different generations, as the computer has gone through five different generations, and each generation has its own characteristics that distinguished the computer in that period, so we can view in detail by following lines:

first generation

The first generation of the computer started from 1942 to 1954 AD, in the 1950s the first computer called UNIVAC was produced, this device was used in making tables of population statistics, this device was manufactured using vacuum valves so that the flow could pass or stop through it electrode without resorting to a mechanical transducer.

At that time, the design of the device was heavy and slow, and it took a long time to warm up. Therefore, the device consumed a large amount of electrical energy to translate the machine language and pass it into the device. the form of instructions with numbers.

This generation consists of the following:

  • CPU: For computers of this generation, this unit consists of the following:
    • programmed controller.
    • Data processing unit
  • main unit: This unit in the first generation consists of the following:
    • Control unit
    • The unity of arithmetic and logic.
    • main memory.
    • public recorders: It consists of:
      • data logger (DR)
      • Multiplication and division recorder (MQ)
      • Accumulator (AC)
      • Registrar address
      • Program Counter (PC)
      • IR
      • IBR
  • output units: Output units depend on the following in their work:
    • Information form: The information is the basic unit in the output, and the most important unit of information is the word “word”, which consists of 40 binary cells, and it can be replaced by the central processing units or main memory, and this is only done at a certain time , so that the main memory can store 212 words. The information in main memory consists of the following:
      • Transactions: They are numerical numbers that are stored in memory by using an entire word, reserving the leftmost cell.
      • Instructions: Two instructions can be stored in one location and each instruction has 20 double digits.

second generation

This generation starts from the year 1955 to the year 1960 AD when in this generation the transistor started to be used instead of the vacuum valves used in the first generation.

The transistor is an electronic chip made of semiconductors that works to control the flow of electrical current going to the computer, and since the beginning of this generation things have become less complicated in terms of programming, especially after the emergence of a new language , which is known as assembly language.

  • Assembly language is a simple level language and simple symbols and abbreviations are used to identify the data. This language is (0 and 1) and many changes have been made in some languages ​​such as Fortran and COBOL.
  • With the development of matter, computers became smaller in size, faster and able to absorb more data and storage space through the use of magnetic cells.
  • In this generation, the form of data is as it appeared in the first generation, where the word is the basic unit of information.

third generation

This generation started in AD 1961 to AD 1979. Integrated electrical circuits started to appear in this generation.

  • Integrated circuits are a small silicon chip, the size of which does not exceed 1 square centimeter. In this generation, devices with electronic equipment appeared, and this also appeared in the time-sharing system.
  • The time-sharing system is a process of organizing various tasks in the computer, whether input or output operations, and processing access to the best use of the central processing unit, and this contributes to the speed of the computer’s response to data.

The fourth generation

This generation started from 1979 AD to 1990 AD, in this generation the first microprocessor appeared, and then there was the ability to use and manufacture small devices the size of digital watches, and it became easy to control cars, pocket computers, household household appliances and PCs.

  • This generation also witnessed a major development in the way of data storage, which appeared in the form of laser discs and magnetic tapes.
  • RAM and ROM memory, as well as small hard drives and floppy disks, appeared in this generation
  • In this generation, input and output devices have become more sophisticated and easier to use, and operating systems are constantly evolving.

Fifth generation

This generation started from AD 1990 till now. It is a generation of smart computers that are very efficient at distinguishing voices and dealing with languages ​​and dialects, and that also translate commands and information with the greatest of ease.

In this generation, the devices are characterized by their small size and large storage capacity, and are characterized by ease of use in addition to being characterized by search speed and accuracy, since they can connect to Internet networks.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is there a sixth generation of computers?

The sixth generation of computers is a reference to the stage of smart computers, which rely entirely on artificial brains or neural networks.

What are the advantages of third generation computers?

In this generation, there are many advantages, including the following:
It is light in weight and small in size, in addition to being cheap
Despite these advantages, there are many defects in this generation, such as: the inability to separate components, especially in the manufacturing process.
In the event of a malfunction, the malfunction cannot be rectified

When did the first generation appear?

The first generation of computers started from 1942 to 1954. In the 1950s, the first computer called UNIVAC was produced.

What are Computer Generations?

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